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  1. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the expression levels of selected integrin genes and proteins and cell differentiation, TNM stage, histological type and other variables potentially associ...

    Authors: Marcos VA Denadai, Luciano S Viana, Renato J Affonso Jr, Sandra R Silva, Indhira D Oliveira, Silvia R Toledo and Delcio Matos

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:16

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Positive HER2 status identifies breast carcinomas that might respond to trastuzumab treatment. Manual HER2 fluorescent in situ hybridisation (FISH) is the most readily used method to detect HER2 gene amplificatio...

    Authors: Christian Öhlschlegel, Doris Kradolfer, Margreth Hell and Wolfram Jochum

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:13

    Content type: Technical advance

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  3. Serum albumin is a marker of nutrition and inflammation. It has recently emerged as a predictor of outcome after surgery for rectal cancer. Our aim was to evaluate if pre-operative serum albumin would predict ...

    Authors: Pramodh C Chandrasinghe, Dileepa S Ediriweera, Sumudu K Kumarage and Kemal I Deen

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:12

    Content type: Research article

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  4. The identification of serial miRNAs targeting the same functional gastric protein could provide new and effective serological biomarkers for the diagnosis of gastric cancer (GC). The aim of this study was to e...

    Authors: Qian Xu, Qi-Guan Dong, Li-ping Sun, Cai-yun He and Yuan Yuan

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:11

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Mucoepidermoid carcinoma (MEC) can be classified into low-, intermediate-, and high-grade tumors based on its histological features. MEC is mainly composed of three cell types (squamous or epidermoid, mucous a...

    Authors: Porntipa Sirivanichsuntorn, Somboon Keelawat, Kittipong Danuthai, Apiwat Mutirangura, Keskanya Subbalekha and Nakarin Kitkumthorn

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:10

    Content type: Research article

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  6. S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (Skp2) is a member of mammalian F-box proteins. The purpose of this study is to clarify the prognostic significance of expression of Skp2 related to gender, estrogen recepto...

    Authors: Sveinung W Sorbye, Thomas K Kilvaer, Andrej Valkov, Tom Donnem, Eivind Smeland, Khalid Al-Shibli, Roy M Bremnes and Lill-Tove Busund

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:9

    Content type: Research article

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  7. We have recently investigated the localisation of immunoglobulin-producing cells (IPCs) in inflamed intestinal tissue samples from patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and identified two main patter...

    Authors: Caterina Defendenti, Fabiola Atzeni, Anna Maria Croce, Elena Mussani, Simone Saibeni, Simona Bollani, Silvia Grosso, Piero Luigi Almasio, Savino Bruno and Piercarlo Sarzi-Puttini

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:8

    Content type: Research article

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  8. The editors of BMC Clinical Pathology would like to thank all of the reviewers who have contributed to the journal in volume 12 (2012).

    Authors: Christopher Foote

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:2

    Content type: Reviewer acknowledgement

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  9. Measurement of thyroglobulin (Tg) protein in the washout of the needle used for fine needle aspiration biopsy cytology (FNAB-C) has been shown to increase the sensitivity of FNAB-C in identifying cervical lymp...

    Authors: Enke Baldini, Salvatore Sorrenti, Cira Di Gioia, Corrado De Vito, Alessandro Antonelli, Lucio Gnessi, Giovanni Carbotta, Eleonora D’Armiento, Paolo Miccoli, Enrico De Antoni and Salvatore Ulisse

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:7

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Prostate cancer is a serious public health problem that affects quality of life and has a significant mortality rate. The aim of the present study was to quantify the fractal dimension and Shannon’s entropy in...

    Authors: Pedro Francisco Ferraz de Arruda, Márcio Gatti, Fernando Nestor Facio Junior, José Germano Ferraz de Arruda, Roberto Douglas Moreira, Luiz Otávio Murta Junior, Laísa Ferraz de Arruda and Moacir Fernandes de Godoy

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:6

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Ki67 is widely used in order to distinguish the “A” and “B” subtypes of luminal-type breast cancer. This study aimed to validate the prognostic value of adding p53 to Ki67 for characterizing luminal-type breas...

    Authors: Takayuki Kobayashi, Keiichi Iwaya, Tomoyuki Moriya, Tamio Yamasaki, Hitoshi Tsuda, Junji Yamamoto and Osamu Matsubara

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:5

    Content type: Research article

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  12. The autosomal dominant tumor syndrome tuberous sclerosis complex is caused by the mutated TSC1 gene, hamartin, and the TSC2 gene, tuberin. Patients with this complex develop typical cutaneus symptoms such as peau...

    Authors: Carl Ludwig Behnes, Gunther Schütze, Christoph Engelke, Felix Bremmer, Bastian Gunawan, Heinz-Joachim Radzun and Stefan Schweyer

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:4

    Content type: Case report

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  13. Targeted therapies in renal cell carcinoma can have different effects on primary and metastatic tumors. To pave the way for predictive biomarker development, we assessed differences in expression of targets of...

    Authors: Saadia A Aziz, Joshua A Sznol, Adebowale Adeniran, Fabio Parisi, Yuval Kluger, Robert L Camp and Harriet M Kluger

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:3

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Since scarce data exist on the pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma in Caucasian patients, we attempted to elucidate the responsible molecular pathways in this patient population.

    Authors: Dimitrios Krikelis, Mattheos Bobos, Georgia Karayannopoulou, Liliana Resiga, Sofia Chrysafi, Epaminontas Samantas, Dimitrios Andreopoulos, Vassilios Vassiliou, Elisabeta Ciuleanu and George Fountzilas

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:1

    Content type: Research article

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  15. The aim of this study was to evaluate apoptotic (Bcl-2, Bax expression, caspase-3 activity, and cytochrome-c) and angiogenic (MMP-9 levels and VEGF expression) markers in operable rectal cancer patients who we...

    Authors: Atilla Kurt, Fatih Yanar, Oktar Asoglu, Emre Balik, Vakur Olgac, Hasan Karanlik, Sevda Tanrikulu Kucuk, Evin Ademoglu, Gulcin Yegen and Dursun Bugra

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:27

    Content type: Research article

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  16. There had been conflicting reports with levels of markers of iron metabolism in HIV infection. This study was therefore aimed at investigating iron status and its possible mediation of severity of HIV- 1 infec...

    Authors: S Olatunbosun Banjoko, Falilat A Oseni, Rachel A Togun, Olaniyi Onayemi, Beatrice O Emma-Okon and Julius B Fakunle

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:26

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Fibromyalgia (FM) is a clinical syndrome characterized by chronic pain and allodynia. The diagnosis of FM has been one of exclusion as a test to confirm the diagnosis is lacking. Recent data highlight the role...

    Authors: Frederick G Behm, Igor M Gavin, Oleksiy Karpenko, Valerie Lindgren, Sujata Gaitonde, Peter A Gashkoff and Bruce S Gillis

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:25

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play a role in cancer progression by degrading extracellular matrix and basement membranes, assisting in tumour neovascularization and in supporting immune response in cancer.

    Authors: Selja Koskensalo, Jaana Hagström, Nina Linder, Mikael Lundin, Timo Sorsa, Johanna Louhimo and Caj Haglund

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:24

    Content type: Research article

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  19. CA19-9 is a tumor marker mainly used for biliary tract, pancreas and colorectum. Since the marker applies usually for adults, the normal range of serum CA19-9 among children has been rarely reported. This is t...

    Authors: Sayo Kawai, Sueli M Oba-Shinjo, Lucy S Ito, Miyuki Uno, Suely K N Marie and Nobuyuki Hamajima

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:23

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Endometrial cancer is the most common gynecologic malignancy in developed countries. Trop-2 is a glycoprotein involved in cellular signal transduction and is differentially overexpressed relative to normal tis...

    Authors: Eliana Bignotti, Laura Zanotti, Stefano Calza, Marcella Falchetti, Silvia Lonardi, Antonella Ravaggi, Chiara Romani, Paola Todeschini, Elisabetta Bandiera, Renata A Tassi, Fabio Facchetti, Enrico Sartori, Sergio Pecorelli, Dana M Roque and Alessandro D Santin

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:22

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The diagnosis of leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) in patients with solid tumors remains difficult. The usual diagnostic methods of cytomorphological assessment of cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) and gadolinium enhanc...

    Authors: Emilie Le Rhun, Frédéric Massin, Qian Tu, Jacques Bonneterre, Marcelo De Carvalho Bittencourt and Gilbert C Faure

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:21

    Content type: Technical advance

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  22. Testicular germ cell tumours (TGCTs) are the most common malignancy in young men aged 18–35 years. They are clinically and histologically subdivided into seminomas and non-seminomas. Cadherins are calcium-depe...

    Authors: Felix Bremmer, Bernhard Hemmerlein, Arne Strauss, Peter Burfeind, Paul Thelen, Heinz-Joachim Radzun and Carl Ludwig Behnes

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:19

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a heterogeneous subgroup of breast cancer characterized by the lack of estrogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and the human epidermal growth factor receptor ...

    Authors: Shant Kishen Kanapathy Pillai, Annie Tay, Suseela Nair and Chee-Onn Leong

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:18

    Content type: Research article

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  24. HPV infection is a worldwide problem strictly linked to the development of cervical cancer. Persistence of the infection is one of the main factors responsible for the invasive progression and women diagnosed ...

    Authors: Antonio Gentile, Sandro Gerli and Gian Carlo Di Renzo

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:17

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Stem/progenitor cells are promising candidates to treat diseased renal parenchyma. However, implanted stem/progenitor cells are exposed to a harmful atmosphere of degenerating parenchyma. To minimize hampering...

    Authors: Will W Minuth and Lucia Denk

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:16

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a common cause of viral hepatitis with significant health complications including cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Assays for hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) are the most ...

    Authors: Carolyn D Rysgaard, Cory S Morris, Denny Drees, Tami Bebber, Scott R Davis, Jeff Kulhavy and Matthew D Krasowski

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:15

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Tenascins are large glycoproteins found in the extracellular matrix of many embryonic and adult tissues. Tenascin-C is a well-studied biomarker known for its high overexpression in the stroma of most solid can...

    Authors: Florence Brellier, Enrico Martina, Martin Degen, Nathalie Heuzé-Vourc’h, Agnès Petit, Thomas Kryza, Yves Courty, Luigi Terracciano, Christian Ruiz and Ruth Chiquet-Ehrismann

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:14

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Lysine-specific demethylase1 (LSD1) is a nuclear protein which belongs to the aminooxidase-enzymes playing an important role in controlling gene expression. It has also been found highly expressed in several h...

    Authors: Nuran Serce, Annette Gnatzy, Susanne Steiner, Henning Lorenzen, Jutta Kirfel and Reinhard Buettner

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:13

    Content type: Research article

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  29. The development of serum immunoassays for the measurement of immunoglobulin free light chains has led to a paradigm shift in the diagnosis, assessment and monitoring of patients with plasma cell dyscrasias. Th...

    Authors: Colin A Hutchison, Paul Cockwell and Mark Cook

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:12

    Content type: Technical advance

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  30. An ameloblastoma is a benign odontogenic neoplasm with aggressive behaviour and high recurrence rates. The increased expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has been reported in ameloblastomas. In the p...

    Authors: Lucyana Conceição Farias, Carolina Cavaliéri Gomes, Marcela Carolina Rodrigues, Wagner Henriques de Castro, Júlio César Tanos Lacerda, Efigênia Ferreira e Ferreira and Ricardo Santiago Gomez

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:11

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Blood platelet levels are being evaluated as predictive and prognostic indicators of the severity of malaria infections in humans. However, there are few studies on platelets and Plasmodium falciparum malaria dur...

    Authors: Mayyada B Adam, Gamal K Adam, Duria A Rayis, Mustafa I Elbashir and Ishag Adam

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:10

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Cervical cancer is necessarily caused by human papillomaviruses, which encode three oncogenes manifesting their functions by interfering with a number of cellular proteins and pathways: the E5, E6, and E7 prot...

    Authors: Niina Kivi, Mikko Rönty, Jussi Tarkkanen, Petri Auvinen and Eeva Auvinen

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:9

    Content type: Research article

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  33. Screening and determining the immune status of individuals for hepatitis B is usually done by detecting hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) and hepatitis B surface antigen-specific antibodies (HBsAb). In some ...

    Authors: Theodor K Mayer, Roberto L Vargas, Ann E Knebel, Scott A Williams, Sean P Culver, Daniel M Clark and Louise R King

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:8

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Prognostic markers in curable STS may have the potential to guide therapy after surgical resection. The purpose of this study was to clarify the prognostic impact of the presence of cells and growth factors be...

    Authors: Sveinung W Sorbye, Thomas K Kilvaer, Andrej Valkov, Tom Donnem, Eivind Smeland, Khalid Al-Shibli, Roy M Bremnes and Lill-Tove Busund

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:7

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Early detection holds the key to an effective control of cancers in general and of oral cancers in particular. However, screening procedures for oral cancer are not straightforward due to procedural requiremen...

    Authors: Shweta Ujaoney, Mukta B Motwani, Shirish Degwekar, Vijay Wadhwan, Prajakta Zade, Minal Chaudhary, Vinay Hazarey, Tushar P Thakre and Manju Mamtani

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:6

    Content type: Research article

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  36. The purpose of this study was to clarify the prognostic significance of peritumoral lymphocyte infiltration in the capsule of soft tissue sarcomas (STS). Multiple observations in preclinical and clinical studi...

    Authors: Sveinung W Sorbye, Thomas K Kilvaer, Andrej Valkov, Tom Donnem, Eivind Smeland, Khalid Al-Shibli, Roy M Bremnes and Lill-Tove Busund

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:5

    Content type: Research article

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  37. LAT1/4F2hc heterodimeric complex is a major route for the transport of large neutral essential amino acids through the plasma membrane. Although it has been shown that LAT1/4F2hc is highly expressed in a varie...

    Authors: Zhen Haining, Nobuyuki Kawai, Keisuke Miyake, Masaki Okada, Shuichi Okubo, Xiang Zhang, Zhou Fei and Takashi Tamiya

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:4

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Chromogenic in situ hybridization (CISH) is fast becoming a well established technique for easy and sensitive determination of HER2 gene status in breast cancer. However, for the chromogenic method to achieve ...

    Authors: Jens Mollerup, Ulla Henriksen, Sven Müller and Andreas Schønau

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:3

    Content type: Technical advance

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  39. Collagen Triple Helix Repeat Containing-1 (CTHRC1) and Nuclear factor (erythroid-derived 2)-like 3 (NFE2L3) may be useful biomarker candidates for the diagnosis of colorectal cancer (CRC) since they have shown...

    Authors: Marco Palma, Lissett Lopez, Margarita García, Nuria de Roja, Tamara Ruiz, Julita García, Elisabet Rosell, Carmen Vela, Paloma Rueda and María-Jose Rodriguez

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:2

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Patients ingesting ethylene glycol, isopropanol, methanol, and propylene glycol ('toxic alcohols') often present with non-specific signs and symptoms. Definitive diagnosis of toxic alcohols has traditionally b...

    Authors: Matthew D Krasowski, Rebecca M Wilcoxon and Joel Miron

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2012 12:1

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Histopathology is the standard method for cancer diagnosis and grading to assess aggressiveness in clinical biopsies. Molecular biomarkers have also been described that are associated with cancer aggressivenes...

    Authors: Jeffrey R Shuster, Raymond S Lance and Dean A Troyer

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2011 11:14

    Content type: Technical advance

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  42. Thyroid adenoma associated (THADA) has been identified as the target gene affected by chromosome 2p21 translocations in thyroid adenomas, but the role of THADA in the thyroid is still elusive. The aim of this st...

    Authors: Lars Kloth, Gazanfer Belge, Käte Burchardt, Siegfried Loeschke, Werner Wosniok, Xin Fu, Rolf Nimzyk, Salah A Mohamed, Norbert Drieschner, Volkhard Rippe and Jörn Bullerdiek

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2011 11:13

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Stress as a cause of illness has been firmly established. In public health and stress research a retrospective biomarker of extended stress would be an indispensible aid. The objective of this pilot study was ...

    Authors: Jerker Karlén, Johnny Ludvigsson, Anneli Frostell, Elvar Theodorsson and Tomas Faresjö

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2011 11:12

    Content type: Research article

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  44. Circulating cell free DNA in serum as well as serum-autoantibodies and the serum proteome have great potential to contribute to early cancer diagnostics via non invasive blood tests. However, most DNA preparat...

    Authors: Matthias Wielscher, Walter Pulverer, Johannes Peham, Manuela Hofner, Christine F Rappaport, Christian Singer, Christof Jungbauer, Christa Nöhammer and Andreas Weinhäusel

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2011 11:11

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Whereas the complement system alterations contribute to schizophrenia, complement receptors and regulators are little studied. We investigated complement receptor type 1 (CR1) expression on blood cells, the le...

    Authors: Arsen Arakelyan, Roksana Zakharyan, Aren Khoyetsyan, David Poghosyan, Rouben Aroutiounian, Frantisek Mrazek, Martin Petrek and Anna Boyajyan

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2011 11:10

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Whole-protein extracts from peripheral blood leukocytes are ideal for basic and clinical research. However, lack of a simple preparation technique has limited the use of such extracts. The aim of this study is...

    Authors: Daisuke Okuzaki, Shoichi Kimura, Norikazu Yabuta, Toshinari Ohmine and Hiroshi Nojima

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2011 11:9

    Content type: Technical advance

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  47. Vitamin D is cutaneously synthesized following sun exposure (vitamin D3) as well as it is derived from dietary intake (vitamin D3 and D2). Vitamin D2 and D3 are metabolized in the liver to 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25...

    Authors: Eyad M Mallah, Mohammad F Hamad, Mays A ElManaseer, Nidal A Qinna, Nasir M Idkaidek, Tawfiq A Arafat and Khalid Z Matalka

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2011 11:8

    Content type: Research article

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