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  1. Immunoassays are widely used in clinical laboratories for measurement of plasma/serum concentrations of steroid hormones such as cortisol and testosterone. Immunoassays can be performed on a variety of standar...

    Authors: Matthew D Krasowski, Denny Drees, Cory S Morris, Jon Maakestad, John L Blau and Sean Ekins

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:33

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Although the co-burden of injection drug use and HIV is increasing in Africa, little is known about the laboratory markers of injection drug use and anti-retroviral treatment (ART) in Kenyan injection drug use...

    Authors: Tom Were, Jesca O Wesongah, Elly Munde, Collins Ouma, Titus M Kahiga, Francisca Ongecha-Owuor, James N Kiarie, Aabid A Ahmed, Ernest P Makokha and Valentine Budambula

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:32

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Bisphosphonates have been widely used for treatment of high bone resorption states. It lowers bone turnover by inhibiting osteoclasts bone resorption with various mechanisms of actions: inhibition of osteoclas...

    Authors: Fabrice Mac-Way, Andrea Trombetti, Christian Noel and Marie-Hélène Lafage-Proust

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:31

    Content type: Case report

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  4. Extraction of DNA from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue is a critical step in molecular oncologic testing. As molecular oncology testing becomes more important for prognostic and therapeutic dec...

    Authors: Anthony N Snow, Aaron A Stence, Jonathan A Pruessner, Aaron D Bossler and Deqin Ma

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:30

    Content type: Technical advance

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  5. A higher prevalence of chronic atrophic gastritis (CAG) occurs in younger adults in Asia. We used Stomach Age to examine the different mechanisms of CAG between younger adults and elderly individuals, and esta...

    Authors: Qin-Yan Gao, Zhen-Hua Wang, Yun Cui, Jian-Qiu Sheng, Kun-He Zhang, Rui-Hua Shi, Jian-Ming Xu, Wei-Chang Chen, Xiu-Li Zuo, Shu-De Li, Yue-Xiang Chen, Yan-Yan Song and Jing-Yuan Fang

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:29

    Content type: Research article

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  6. alphaB-crystallin is a small heat shock protein that has recently been characterized as an oncoprotein correlating with the basal core phenotype and with negative prognostic factors in breast carcinomas. The p...

    Authors: Triantafyllia Koletsa, Flora Stavridi, Mattheos Bobos, Ioannis Kostopoulos, Vassiliki Kotoula, Anastasia G Eleftheraki, Irene Konstantopoulou, Christos Papadimitriou, Anna Batistatou, Helen Gogas, Angelos Koutras, Dimosthenis V Skarlos, George Pentheroudakis, Ioannis Efstratiou, Dimitrios Pectasides and George Fountzilas

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:28

    Content type: Research article

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  7. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are non-coding RNAs that negatively regulate gene expression by preventing the translation of specific mRNA transcripts. Recent studies have shown that miRNAs are stably expressed in human s...

    Authors: Sara A MacLellan, Calum MacAulay, Stephen Lam and Cathie Garnis

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:27

    Content type: Research article

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  8. As a secreted protein, serum trefoil factor 3 (TFF3) has been reported to be a biomarker of several malignancies. We further investigated whether TFF3 can be applied as a biomarker for and predictor of respons...

    Authors: Li Xiao, Yun-Peng Liu, Chuan-Xing Xiao, Jian-Lin Ren and Bayasi Guleng

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:26

    Content type: Research article

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  9. 5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is the cornerstone of chemotherapeutic treatment for patients with colorectal cancer. The enzyme thymidine phosphorylase (TP) catalyzes the conversion of 5-FU to its active metabolite, 5-...

    Authors: Elinor Bexe Lindskog, Kristoffer Derwinger, Bengt Gustavsson, Peter Falk and Yvonne Wettergren

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:25

    Content type: Research article

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  10. Anti-SOX2 antibody responses are observed in about 10 to 20% of small cell lung cancer (SCLC) patients. The aim of this study was to determine whether such responses reflect a particular pattern of SOX2 protei...

    Authors: Sukru Atakan, Hulya Bayiz, Serpil Sak, Alper Poyraz, Burcak Vural, Azmi Serhat Yildirim, Funda Demirag and Ali Osmay Gure

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:24

    Content type: Research article

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  11. Ki-67 expression is a well-established prognostic marker in various cancers. However, Ki-67 expression is also known as being heterogeneous. We investigated the prognostic significance of Ki-67 from the view o...

    Authors: Kazuhiro Tabata, Tomonori Tanaka, Tomayoshi Hayashi, Takashi Hori, Sayuri Nunomura, Suguru Yonezawa and Junya Fukuoka

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:23

    Content type: Research article

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  12. Whole blood gene expression-based molecular diagnostic tests are becoming increasingly available. Conventional tube-based methods for obtaining RNA from whole blood can be limited by phlebotomy, volume require...

    Authors: Heng Tao, Philip Beineke, Bing Li, William Alberts, Steven Rosenberg, Erik Kvam and James A Wingrove

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:22

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Levels of haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) and blood lipids are important determinants of risk in patients with diabetes. Standard analysis methods based upon venous blood samples can be logistically challenging in resour...

    Authors: Eshan T Affan, Devarsetty Praveen, Clara K Chow and Bruce C Neal

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:21

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Bacterial infections of wounds impair healing and worsen scarring. We hypothesized that transcriptome analysis of wounds infected with Klebsiella pneumoniae (K.p.) or Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P.a.) would indicate ...

    Authors: Kai P Leung, Peter D’Arpa, Akhil K Seth, Matthew R Geringer, Marti Jett, Wei Xu, Seok J Hong, Robert D Galiano, Tsute Chen and Thomas A Mustoe

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:20

    Content type: Research article

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  15. EDTA-dependent pseudothrombocytopenia (EDTA-PTCP) is a common laboratory phenomenon with a prevalence ranging from 0.1-2% in hospitalized patients to 15-17% in outpatients evaluated for isolated thrombocytopen...

    Authors: Michael Nagler, Peter Keller, Daniel Siegrist and Lorenzo Alberio

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:19

    Content type: Case report

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  16. Infancy is the most common period for childhood death, including both neonatal deaths from obstetric or medical complications and sudden unexpected infant deaths. The weighing of organs at autopsy is an establ...

    Authors: Jeremy W Pryce, Andrew R Bamber, Michael T Ashworth, Liina Kiho, Marian Malone and Neil J Sebire

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:18

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Successful management of patients with hematologic malignancies depends upon accurate and timely diagnosis, which frequently requires integration and interpretation of multiple tests. Our retrospective analysi...

    Authors: Nicole M Engel-Nitz, Benjamin Eckert, Rui Song, Priyanka Koka, Erin M Hulbert, Jeffrey McPheeters and April Teitelbaum

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:17

    Content type: Research article

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  18. Carcinoma of the male breast is responsible for less than 1% of all malignancies in men but the incidence is rising. Invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common histological subtype while invasive lobular car...

    Authors: Muhammad Nauman Zahir, Khurram Minhas and Munira Shabbir-Moosajee

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:16

    Content type: Case report

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  19. Galectins are known to regulate cell differentiation and growth as well as cell adhesion and apoptosis. Galectins have been discussed as possible prognosticators for survival in renal cell cancer (RCC) and oth...

    Authors: Christoph-A von Klot, Mario W Kramer, Inga Peters, Joerg Hennenlotter, Mahmoud Abbas, Ralph Scherer, Thomas RW Herrmann, Arnulf Stenzl, Markus A Kuczyk, Juergen Serth and Axel S Merseburger

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:15

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Tuberculous lymphadenitis is next to pulmonary tuberculosis as the most common cause of tuberculosis. Uganda genotype, one of the sub-lineages of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, is the most prevalent cause of pulmona...

    Authors: Dan Wamala, Benon Asiimwe, Edgar Kigozi, Gerald Mboowa, Moses Joloba and Gunilla Kallenius

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:14

    Content type: Research article

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  21. Neuroblastoma is the most common solid tumour of infancy and is responsible for 15% of childhood cancer deaths. Presence of amplified MYCN in neuroblastoma is associated with poor prognosis and rapid tumour progr...

    Authors: Elizabeth Latimer, Glenn Anderson and Neil James Sebire

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:13

    Content type: Research article

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  22. In Guadeloupe and Martinique, two French Overseas Departments, colorectal cancer (CRC) has become an essential public health issue. However, little is known about CRC characteristics and the p53 status in thes...

    Authors: Monique Decastel, Marlene Ossondo, Anne-Marie Andrea, Benoît Tressieres, Jacqueline Veronique-baudin, Jacqueline Deloumeaux, Marc Lubeth and Juliette Smith-ravin

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:12

    Content type: Research article

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  23. Dickoppf-1 (DKK-1) is a negative regulator of bone formation with tumorigenic potential. The up-regulation of DKK-1 is an early event in prostate cancer (PCa) development, thus we investigated its role as a ma...

    Authors: Patrizia D’Amelio, Ilaria Roato, Marco Oderda, Francesco Soria, Andrea Zitella, Riccardo Ferracini, Giulio Mengozzi, Paolo Gontero and Giovanni Carlo Isaia

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:11

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are known to be associated with an overexpression in different types of cancer such as colon and prostate cancer. In this study we aimed to evaluate the protein expression of class...

    Authors: Cédric Poyet, Bastian Jentsch, Thomas Hermanns, Daniel Schweckendiek, Hans-Helge Seifert, Martin Schmidtpeter, Tullio Sulser, Holger Moch, Peter J Wild and Glen Kristiansen

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:10

    Content type: Research article

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  25. MicroRNA (miR)-21 has been revealed as an oncogene in cancer development, and is one of the miRNAs closely connected to angiogenesis. We aimed to explore the impact of miR-21 expression in both tumor and strom...

    Authors: Helge Stenvold, Tom Donnem, Sigve Andersen, Samer Al-Saad, Andrej Valkov, Mona Irene Pedersen, Lill-Tove Busund and Roy M Bremnes

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:9

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Ephrin (Eph) receptors are frequently overexpressed in a wide variety of human malignant tumors, being associated with tumor growth, invasion, metastasis and angiogenesis. The present study aimed to evaluate t...

    Authors: Constantinos Giaginis, Nikolaos Tsoukalas, Evangelos Bournakis, Paraskevi Alexandrou, Nikolaos Kavantzas, Efstratios Patsouris and Stamatios Theocharis

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:8

    Content type: Research article

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  27. The aim of this discovery study was the identification of peptide serum biomarkers for detecting biliary tract cancer (BTC) using samples from healthy volunteers and benign cases of biliary disease as control ...

    Authors: Neomal S Sandanayake, Stephane Camuzeaux, John Sinclair, Oleg Blyuss, Fausto Andreola, Michael H Chapman, George J Webster, Ross C Smith, John F Timms and Stephen P Pereira

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:7

    Content type: Research article

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  28. Central venous catheters provide easy access for intravenous infusion and nutrition, but they can bring about complications such as catheter-related infections. Infected central venous catheters often cause no...

    Authors: Kunihiro Inai, Sakon Noriki and Hiromichi Iwasaki

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:6

    Content type: Case report

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  29. Soft-tissue sarcomas are rare malignant tumors of mesenchymal lineage that can arise in any part of the body. Prognosis, and hence also treatment may vary according to histologic subtype and localization. Angi...

    Authors: Thomas K Kilvaer, Eivind Smeland, Andrej Valkov, Sveinung W Sorbye, Roy M Bremnes, Lill-Tove Busund and Tom Donnem

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:5

    Content type: Research article

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  30. Hemoglobin Shepherds Bush (Human Genome Variation Society name: HBB:c.224G > A) is an unstable hemoglobin variant resulting from a β 74 GGC to GAC mutation (Gly to Asp) that manifests clinically as hemolytic a...

    Authors: Scott L Paradise, Lauren Estep, Jordan Olson and Keri Donaldson

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:4

    Content type: Case report

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  31. Fatty acid synthase (FAS) is highly expressed in various types of cancer, and elevated expression of FAS has been suggested to be a predictor of tumor aggressiveness and poor prognosis. We examined whether FAS...

    Authors: Shinsuke Hamada, Akio Horiguchi, Kenji Kuroda, Keiichi Ito, Tomohiko Asano, Kosuke Miyai and Keiichi Iwaya

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:3

    Content type: Research article

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    The Erratum to this article has been published in BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:7

  32. Sulfotransferase 1A1 (SULT1A1) gene expression is tissue specific, with little to no expression in normal breast epithelia. Expression in breast tumors has been documented, but the transcriptional regulation of S...

    Authors: Aiwei Yao-Borengasser, Lora J Rogers, Vineetha K Edavana, Rosalind B Penney, Xinfeng Yu, Ishwori B Dhakal, Suzanne Williams and Susan A Kadlubar

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:1

    Content type: Research article

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  33. The identification of mismatch-repair (MMR) defective colon cancer is clinically relevant for diagnostic, prognostic and potentially also for treatment predictive purposes. Preselection of tumors for MMR analy...

    Authors: Patrick Joost, Pär-Ola Bendahl, Britta Halvarsson, Eva Rambech and Mef Nilbert

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:33

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Inactivation of wild type P53 by its main cellular inhibitors (MDM2 and MDMX) is a well recognised feature of tumour formation in liposarcomas. MDM2 over-expression has been detected in approximately 80% of li...

    Authors: Nader Touqan, Christine P Diggle, Edlo T Verghese, Sarah Perry, Kieran Horgan, William Merchant, Rashida Anwar, Alexander F Markham, Ian M Carr and Rajgopal Achuthan

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:32

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Several well-established tumour prognostic factors are used to guide the clinical management of patients with breast cancer. Lymphovascular invasion and angiogenesis have also been reported to have some promis...

    Authors: Zahra MA Mohammed, Donald C McMillan, Joanne Edwards, Elizabeth Mallon, Julie C Doughty, Clare Orange and James J Going

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:31

    Content type: Research article

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  36. A deregulated energy metabolism is a hallmark of malignant disease that offers possible future targets for treatment. We investigated the prognostic value of the glycolytic enzymes glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate d...

    Authors: Elisabet Hjerpe, Suzanne Egyhazi Brage, Joseph Carlson, Marianne Frostvik Stolt, Kjell Schedvins, Hemming Johansson, Maria Shoshan and Elisabeth Åvall-Lundqvist

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:30

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Dissection of specific Areas Of Interest (AOIs) of slide-mounted tumor samples is often used to enrich for cancer cells in order to generate better signal to noise ratios in subsequent biochemical characteriza...

    Authors: Nils Adey, Dale Emery, Derek Bosh, Steven Callahan, John Schreiner, Yang Chen, Ann Greig, Katherine Geiersbach and Robert Parry

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:29

    Content type: Technical advance

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  38. Knowledge is limited regarding the association between stem cells in histologically benign breast tissue and risk factors for breast cancer, and hence we addressed this issue in the present study. Recently, we...

    Authors: Björn L Isfoss, Bo Holmqvist, Helena Jernström, Per Alm and Håkan Olsson

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:28

    Content type: Research article

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  39. The malignant transformation of thyroid C cells is associated with an increase in human calcitonin (hCT), which can thus be helpful in the early diagnosis of medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). For this reason,...

    Authors: Christoph Guesgen, Arnulf Willms, Axel Zwad, Stephan Waldeck, Helmut Wieler and Robert Schwab

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:27

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Alterations to apoptosis are a common occurrence in human tumours. The aim of our study was to determine the influence of apoptotic variations on the carcinogenesis and prognosis of colorectal carcinomas (CRCs).

    Authors: Julia Alcaide, Rafael Funez, Antonio Rueda, Elisabeth Perez-Ruiz, Teresa Pereda, Isabel Rodrigo, Rafael Coveñas, Miguel Muñoz and Maximino Redondo

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:24

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Malignant astrocytomas are the most common primary brain tumors and one of the most lethal among human cancers despite optimal treatment. Therefore, the characterization of molecular alterations underlying the...

    Authors: Irene Rodríguez-Hernández, Marta Vázquez-Cedeira, Angel Santos-Briz, Juan L García, Isabel F Fernández, Juan A Gómez-Moreta, Javier Martin-Vallejo, Rogelio González-Sarmiento and Pedro A Lazo

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:23

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Serum pepsinogen (PG) I/II ratio has been widely used as “serological biopsy” for the screening of gastric cancer (GC) and atrophic gastritis (GA). However, study concerning in situ expression of PGs is curren...

    Authors: Ping Li, Caiyun He, Liping Sun, Nannan Dong and Yuan Yuan

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:22

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Pepsinogen C (PGC) and mucin1 (MUC1) are important physiologically functional gastric proteins; Mucin2 (MUC2) is an “ectopic” functional protein in intestinal metaplasia of gastric mucosa. We analyzed the co-e...

    Authors: Qian Xu, Li-ping Sun, Ben-gang Wang, Jing-wei Liu, Ping Li, Cai-yun He and Yuan Yuan

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:21

    Content type: Research article

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  44. In our emergency department, we collect blood in Rapid Serum Tubes (RSTs; Becton Dickinson, Franklin Lakes, NJ), in which clotting times are reduced. We investigated the influence of RST use on cardiac troponi...

    Authors: Yasemin U Budak, Kagan Huysal, Mehtap Bulut and Murat Polat

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:20

    Content type: Research article

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  45. Erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular (Eph) receptor, consisting of a family of receptor tyrosine kinases, plays critical roles in tumour development and is considered an attractive target for cancer therapy.

    Authors: Kohji Miyazaki, Mikito Inokuchi, Yoko Takagi, Keiji Kato, Kazuyuki Kojima and Kenichi Sugihara

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:19

    Content type: Research article

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  46. Angioimmunoblastic T-cell lymphoma is one of the most common types of peripheral T-cell lymphomas, usually presenting at an older age with an aggressive clinical course. Its characteristic morphological presen...

    Authors: Yara Banz, Fatime Krasniqi, Stephan Dirnhofer and Alexander Tzankov

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2013 13:18

    Content type: Case report

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