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  1. Sickle cell disease (SCD) is a class of hemoglobinopathy resulting from a single mutation in the ß-globin chain inducing the substitution of valine for glutamic acid at the sixth amino acid position which lead...

    Authors: Vicky Jocelyne Ama Moor, Constant Anatole Pieme, Bernard Chetcha Chemegne, Helene Manonji, Borgia Legrand Njinkio Nono, Corine Tchoula Mamiafo, Bruno Moukette Moukette, Francine Tankeu Nzufo and Asonganyi Tazoacha

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2016 16:15

    Content type: Research article

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  2. Omega-3 long chain-polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFAs)–docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)– and omega-6 LC-PUFA arachidonic acid (ARA), are essential for ...

    Authors: Grace Mashavave, Patience Kuona, Willard Tinago, Babill Stray-Pedersen, Marshall Munjoma and Cuthbert Musarurwa

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2016 16:14

    Content type: Research article

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  3. Podocalyxin-like protein (PODXL) is a cell surface transmembrane glycoprotein, the expression of which has been associated with poor prognosis in a range of malignancies. The aim of this study was to investiga...

    Authors: David Borg, Charlotta Hedner, Björn Nodin, Anna Larsson, Anders Johnsson, Jakob Eberhard and Karin Jirström

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2016 16:13

    Content type: Research article

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  4. Calcifications of atherosclerotic plaques represent a controversial issue as they either lead to the stabilization or rupture of the lesion. However, the cellular key players involved in the progression of the...

    Authors: Silvia Fittipaldi, Francesco Vasuri, Alessio Degiovanni, Rodolfo Pini, Mauro Gargiulo, Andrea Stella, Gianandrea Pasquinelli, William G. Thilly and Elena V. Gostjeva

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2016 16:12

    Content type: Research article

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  5. Effective management of trauma-related invasive fungal wound infections (IFIs) depends on early diagnosis and timely initiation of treatment. We evaluated the utility of routine staining, histochemical stains ...

    Authors: Sarah M. Heaton, Amy C. Weintrob, Kevin Downing, Bryan Keenan, Deepak Aggarwal, Faraz Shaikh, David R. Tribble and Justin Wells

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2016 16:11

    Content type: Research article

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  6. Repeat cytology and HPV testing is used in triage of women with minor cytological lesions. The objective of this study was to evaluate 14-type HPV DNA and 5-type HPV mRNA testing in delayed triage of women wit...

    Authors: Bjørn Westre, Anita Giske, Hilde Guttormsen, Sveinung Wergeland Sørbye and Finn Egil Skjeldestad

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2016 16:9

    Content type: Research article

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  7. Cellular angiofibroma represents a newly described, site specific tumor. Histologically, CAF is a benign mesenchymal neoplasm characterized by two principal components: bland spindle cells and prominent small ...

    Authors: Mouna Khmou, Najat Lamalmi, Abderrahmane Malihy, Lamia Rouas and Zaitouna Alhamany

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2016 16:8

    Content type: Case report

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  8. In the spectrum of molecular alterations found in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), somatic mutations in the WNT/β-catenin pathway and the p53/cell cycle control pathway are among the most frequent ones. It has ...

    Authors: Juliane Friemel, Markus Rechsteiner, Marion Bawohl, Lukas Frick, Beat Müllhaupt, Mickaël Lesurtel and Achim Weber

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2016 16:7

    Content type: Case report

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  9. Primary thyroid lymphoma is an uncommon pathological entity that accounts for only 1 to 5 % of all thyroid malignancies. Primary Burkitt lymphoma of the thyroid gland is very rare. This article presents the fi...

    Authors: Mohamed Allaoui, Ilias Benchafai, El Mehdi Mahtat, Safae Regragui, Adil Boudhas, Mustapha Azzakhmam, Mohammed Boukhechba, Abderrahmane Al Bouzidi and Mohamed Oukabli

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2016 16:6

    Content type: Case report

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  10. Teratomas are a germ cell tumors composed of two or more tissues which originate from ectoderm, endoderm or mesoderm. These tumors commonly arise from the ovary although other extragonadal sites can be involve...

    Authors: Emmanuel Kamgobe, Anthony Massinde, Dismas Matovelo, Edgar Ndaboine, Peter Rambau and Tito Chaula

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2016 16:5

    Content type: Case report

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  11. Phyllodes tumors are rare fibroepithelial tumors accounting for less than 1 % of all breast neoplasms. They are malignant in 20 % of cases. Only a few cases of malignant phyllodes tumors metastatic to bone hav...

    Authors: Mohamed Reda El Ochi, Mehdi Toreis, Mohamed Benchekroun, Zineb Benkerroum, Mohamed Allaoui, Mohamed Ichou, Basma El Khannoussi, Abderrahman Albouzidi and Mohamed Oukabli

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2016 16:4

    Content type: Case report

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  12. Adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR), characterized by a heterogeneous cellular inflammatory infiltrate and the presence of corrosion products in the periprosthetic soft tissues, has been recognized as a mecha...

    Authors: Benjamin F. Ricciardi, Allina A. Nocon, Seth A. Jerabek, Gabrielle Wilner, Elianna Kaplowitz, Steven R. Goldring, P. Edward Purdue and Giorgio Perino

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2016 16:3

    Content type: Research article

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  13. Stillbirth is frequently the result of pathological processes involving the placenta. Understanding the significance of specific lesions is hindered by qualitative subjective evaluation. We hypothesised that q...

    Authors: Imogen Ptacek, Anna Smith, Ainslie Garrod, Sian Bullough, Nicola Bradley, Gauri Batra, Colin P. Sibley, Rebecca L. Jones, Paul Brownbill and Alexander E. P. Heazell

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2016 16:1

    Content type: Research article

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  14. Leiomyosarcoma is a rare malignant mesenchymal tumor that represents 5–7 % of all soft tissue sarcomas. The occurrence of this tumor in the salivary glands is exceptional. Only five cases are reported in the s...

    Authors: Mohamed Reda El Ochi, Hafsa Chahdi, Issam Rharrassi, Abderrahman Albouzidi and Mohamed Oukabli

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:22

    Content type: Case report

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  15. The role of vitamin E in breast cancer prevention and treatment has been widely investigated, and the different tocopherols that comprise this nutrient have been shown to have divergent associations with cance...

    Authors: Xi Wang, Brian Z. Ring, Robert S. Seitz, Douglas T. Ross, Kirsten Woolf, Rodney A. Beck, David G. Hicks and Shuyuan Yeh

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:21

    Content type: Research article

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  16. Phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase, catalytic subunit alpha, PIK3CA, is one of the most frequently mutated genes in breast cancer, and the mutation status of PIK3CA has clinical relevance related to r...

    Authors: Ruza Arsenic, Denise Treue, Annika Lehmann, Michael Hummel, Manfred Dietel, Carsten Denkert and Jan Budczies

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:20

    Content type: Research article

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  17. Lung cancer is one of the most common malignant neoplasms worldwide and has a high mortality rate. To enable individualized therapy regimens, a better understanding of the molecular tumor biology has still to ...

    Authors: Michael Majores, Anne Schindler, Angela Fuchs, Johannes Stein, Lukas Heukamp, Peter Altevogt and Glen Kristiansen

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:19

    Content type: Research article

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  18. The “stem cell theory of cancer” states that a subpopulation of cells with stem cell-like properties plays a central role in the formation, sustainment, spread, and drug resistant characteristics of malignant ...

    Authors: Clarissa N. Amaya and Brad A. Bryan

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:18

    Content type: Research article

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  19. Previously, we have used clinical and gene expression data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) to model a pathway-based index predicting outcomes in ovarian carcinoma. This data were obtained from snap-frozen ...

    Authors: William H. Bradley, Kevin Eng, Min Le, A. Craig Mackinnon, Christina Kendziorski and Janet S. Rader

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:17

    Content type: Research article

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  20. Cervical cancer is the leading cause of cancer related death among women in developing countries. Cervical cancer is preceded by cervical surface epithelial cell abnormalities (ECA) which can be detected by Pa...

    Authors: Melkamu Getinet, Baye Gelaw, Abinet Sisay, Eiman A. Mahmoud and Abate Assefa

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:16

    Content type: Research article

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  21. The spontaneous rupture of hepatic metastases is rare compared to that of primary hepatic tumors. In addition, vemurafenib, a selective inhibitor of the mutant BRAF protein or gene product, has been reported t...

    Authors: Takuto Nosaka, Katsushi Hiramatsu, Tomoyuki Nemoto, Yasushi Saito, Yoshihiko Ozaki, Kazuto Takahashi, Tatsushi Naito, Kazuya Ofuji, Hidetaka Matsuda, Masahiro Ohtani, Hiroyuki Suto, Yoshiaki Imamura and Yasunari Nakamoto

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:15

    Content type: Case report

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  22. Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease composed of multiple subgroups with different molecular alterations, cellular composition, clinical behaviour, and response to treatment. This study evaluates the occur...

    Authors: Bernard Seshie, Nii Armah Adu-Aryee, Florence Dedey, Benedict Calys-Tagoe and Joe-Nat Clegg-Lamptey

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:14

    Content type: Research article

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  23. The use of dried blood spot (DBS) sampling is an alternative to traditional venous blood collection, and particularly useful for people living in rural and remote areas, and for those who are infirm, house-bou...

    Authors: Claudio A. Mastronardi, Belinda Whittle, Robert Tunningley, Teresa Neeman and Gilberto Paz-Filho

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:13

    Content type: Research article

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  24. Gastrointestinal food allergy (GIFA) occurs in 2 to 4 % of children, the majority of whom are infants (<1 year of age). Although endoscopy is considered the gold standard for diagnosing GIFA, it is invasive an...

    Authors: Neil Shah, Ru-Xin Melanie Foong, Osvaldo Borrelli, Eleni Volonaki, Robert Dziubak, Rosan Meyer, Mamoun Elawad and Neil J. Sebire

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:12

    Content type: Research article

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  25. Clinical laboratories frequently receive orders to perform additional tests on existing specimens (‘add-ons’). Previous studies have examined add-on ordering patterns over short periods of time. The objective ...

    Authors: Louis S. Nelson, Scott R. Davis, Robert M. Humble, Jeff Kulhavy, Dean R. Aman and Matthew D. Krasowski

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:11

    Content type: Research article

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  26. Adenocarcinoma of the periampullary region is associated with poor prognosis and new prognostic and treatment predictive biomarkers are needed for improved treatment. Membranous expression of podocalyxin-like ...

    Authors: Margareta Heby, Jakob Elebro, Björn Nodin, Karin Jirström and Jakob Eberhard

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:10

    Content type: Research article

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  27. Conventional bacterial stool culture is one of the more time-consuming tests in a routine clinical microbiology laboratory. In addition, less than 5 % of stool cultures yield positive results. A molecular plat...

    Authors: Joel E. Mortensen, Cindi Ventrola, Sarah Hanna and Adam Walter

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:9

    Content type: Research article

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  28. The mevalonate pathway synthetizes cholesterol, steroid hormones, and non-steriod isoprenoids necessary for cell survival. 3-Hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase (HMGCR) is the rate-limiting enzyme of...

    Authors: Emma Gustbée, Helga Tryggvadottir, Andrea Markkula, Maria Simonsson, Björn Nodin, Karin Jirström, Carsten Rose, Christian Ingvar, Signe Borgquist and Helena Jernström

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:8

    Content type: Research article

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  29. Germline mutations in BRCA1 or BRCA2 lead to a high lifetime probability of developing ovarian or breast cancer. These genes can also be involved in the development of non-hereditary tumours as somatic BRCA1/2 pa...

    Authors: Gillian Ellison, Shuwen Huang, Hedley Carr, Andrew Wallace, Miika Ahdesmaki, Sanjeev Bhaskar and John Mills

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:5

    Content type: Technical advance

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  30. Individually submitted prostatic needle biopsies are recommended by most guidelines because of their potential advantage in terms of core quality. However, unspecified bilateral biopsies are commonly submitted...

    Authors: Teemu T Tolonen, Jorma Isola, Antti Kaipia, Jarno Riikonen, Laura Koivusalo, Sanna Huovinen, Marita Laurila, Sinikka Porre, Mika Tirkkonen and Paula Kujala

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:4

    Content type: Research article

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  31. Superoxide dismutase-2 (SOD2) is considered one of the most important antioxidant enzymes that regulate cellular redox state in normal and tumorigenic cells. Overexpression of this enzyme in lung, gastric, col...

    Authors: Lara Termini, José H Fregnani, Enrique Boccardo, Walter H da Costa, Adhemar Longatto-Filho, Maria A Andreoli, Maria C Costa, Ademar Lopes, Isabela W da Cunha, Fernando A Soares, Luisa L Villa and Gustavo C Guimarães

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:3

    Content type: Research article

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  32. Primary gastric actinomycosis is extremely rare, the appendix and ileocecal region being the most commonly involved sites in abdominopelvic actinomycosis. Herein, we report a case of primary gastric actinomyco...

    Authors: Khaleel Al-Obaidy, Fatimah Alruwaii, Areej Al Nemer, Raed Alsulaiman, Zainab Alruwaii and Mohamed A Shawarby

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2015 15:2

    Content type: Case report

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  33. At the time of the study, the HIV-treatment policy in South Africa included highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) regimens 1 (nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) only), and 2 (protease i...

    Authors: Fierdoz Omar, Joel A Dave, Judy A King, Naomi S Levitt and Tahir S Pillay

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:46

    Content type: Research article

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  34. Dicer and Drosha are important enzymes for processing microRNAs. Recent studies have exhibited possible links between expression of different miRNAs, levels of miRNA processing enzymes, and cancer prognosis. W...

    Authors: Kenneth Lønvik, Sveinung W Sørbye, Marit N Nilsen and Ruth H Paulssen

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:45

    Content type: Research article

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  35. Percutaneous needle autopsy can overcome a number of barriers that limit the use of complete autopsies. We performed blind-and ultrasound guided needle autopsies in HIV-infected adults in Uganda. In this study...

    Authors: Janneke A Cox, Robert L Lukande, Sam Kalungi, Koen Van de Vijver, Eric Van Marck, Ann M Nelson, Asafu Munema, Yukari C Manabe and Robert Colebunders

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:44

    Content type: Research article

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  36. Acute bacterial meningitis frequently causes cortical and hippocampal neuron loss leading to permanent neurological sequelae. Neuron death in acute bacterial meningitis involves the excessive activation of NMD...

    Authors: Roney Santos Coimbra, Bruno Frederico Aguilar Calegare, Talitah Michel Sanchez Candiani and Vânia D’Almeida

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:43

    Content type: Research article

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  37. Liposarcoma (LS) is the second-most common type of soft-tissue sarcoma. Despite advances in knowledge and treatment of this disease, there remains a need for more effective LS therapy. Steroid hormone receptor...

    Authors: Davis R Ingram, Lloye M Dillon, Dina Chelouche Lev, Alexander Lazar, Elizabeth G Demicco, Burton L Eisenberg and Todd W Miller

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:42

    Content type: Research article

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  38. Limb girdle muscular dystrophy type 2G (LGMD2G) is a subtype of autosomal recessive muscular dystrophy caused by mutations in the telethonin gene. There are few LGMD2G patients worldwide reported, and this is ...

    Authors: Ana Cotta, Julia Filardi Paim, Antonio Lopes da-Cunha-Junior, Rafael Xavier Neto, Simone Vilela Nunes, Monica Magalhaes Navarro, Jaquelin Valicek, Elmano Carvalho, Lydia U Yamamoto, Camila F Almeida, Shelida Vasconcelos Braz, Reinaldo Issao Takata and Mariz Vainzof

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:41

    Content type: Case report

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  39. Primary cilia are non-motile sensory cytoplasmic organelles that are involved in cell cycle progression. Ultrastructurally, the primary cilium region is complex, with normal ciliogenesis progressing through fi...

    Authors: Joanna J Moser, Marvin J Fritzler and Jerome B Rattner

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:40

    Content type: Research article

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  40. Adverse local tissue reaction (ALTR) is characterized by periprosthetic soft tissue inflammation composed of a mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate, extensive soft tissue necrosis, and vascular changes. Multiple...

    Authors: Giorgio Perino, Benjamin F Ricciardi, Seth A Jerabek, Guido Martignoni, Gabrielle Wilner, Dan Maass, Steven R Goldring and P Edward Purdue

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:39

    Content type: Research article

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  41. Oral squamous cell carcinomas are often heavily infiltrated by immune cells. The organization of B-cells, follicular dendritic cells, T-cells and high-endothelial venules into structures termed tertiary lympho...

    Authors: Anna M Wirsing, Oddveig G Rikardsen, Sonja E Steigen, Lars Uhlin-Hansen and Elin Hadler-Olsen

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:38

    Content type: Research article

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  42. Squamous cell carcinoma of tongue (SCCT) is expected to harbor unique clinico-pathological and molecular genetic features since a significant proportion of patients are young and exhibit no association with to...

    Authors: Raju SR Adduri, Viswakalyan Kotapalli, Neha A Gupta, Swarnalata Gowrishankar, Mukta Srinivasulu, Mohammed Mujtaba Ali, Subramanyeshwar Rao, Shantveer G Uppin, Umanath K Nayak, Snehalatha Dhagam, Mohana Vamsy Chigurupati and Murali Dharan Bashyam

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:37

    Content type: Research article

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  43. Liposarcoma is the most frequent soft tissue sarcoma. Well differentiated liposarcoma may progress into dedifferentiated liposarcoma with pleomorphic histology. A minority additionally features myogenic, osteo...

    Authors: Suvi Lokka, Andreas H Scheel, Sebastian Dango, Katja Schmitz, Rudolf Hesterberg, Josef Rüschoff and Hans-Ulrich Schildhaus

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:36

    Content type: Case report

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  44. Pancreatico-biliary adenocarcinomas (PBA) have a poor prognosis. Diagnosis is usually achieved by imaging and/or endoscopy with confirmatory cytology. Cytological interpretation can be difficult especially in ...

    Authors: Asif Ali, Victoria Brown, Simon Denley, Nigel B Jamieson, Jennifer P Morton, Colin Nixon, Janet S Graham, Owen J Sansom, C Ross Carter, Colin J McKay, Fraser R Duthie and Karin A Oien

    Citation: BMC Clinical Pathology 2014 14:35

    Content type: Research article

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