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Table 1 All test analyzed, their control values and further data used for estimation of the beta error.

From: Effects of different centrifugation conditions on clinical chemistry and Immunology test results

Test Abbreviation QC target value unit n mean SD CV Maximal error (CLIA) lowest measured value highest measured value Range Ratio estimated beta-error smaller than Federal Register Qualab Clinical estimate
Albumin Alb 47 g/L 16 47.44 0.81 1.71 3.65 25 48 1.92 <10% ± 10% ± 15%  
  Alb 30.9 g/L 18 31.71 0.71 2.28         
Alcaline Phosphatase AP 71.9 U/L 18 70.56 1.04 1.47 67.80 36 416 11.56 <5% ± 30% ± 21%  
  AP 210 U/L 13 207.53 3.39 1.63         
Alanin aminotransferase ALTL 45.5 U/L 17 45.65 0.49 1.07 36.10 7 354 50.57 <5% ± 20% ± 21%  
  ALTL 126 U/L 19 126.47 1.58 1.25         
Amikacin Amik 7.83 umol/L 9 8.822 1.057 11.98 0.28 0 2.8 UD! <10%    10%
  Amik 23.1 umol/L 9 23.828 1.341 5.63         
  Amik 46.3 umol/L 11 48.225 2.994 6.2         
Pancreatic Amylase Amy-P 40 U/L 18 39.83 0.71 1.78 19.88 2 157 78.50 <5%   ± 25%  
  Amy-P 107 U/L 19 107.11 1.05 0.98         
Amylase Amyl 79.5 U/L 16 79.31 0.79 1 29.25 13 182 14.00 <5% ± 30% ± 30%  
  Amyl 198 U/L 12 195.56 1.42 0.73         
Aspartate aminotransferase ASTL 47.3 U/L 17 46.59 1.18 2.53 25.40 10 244 24.40 <5% ± 20% ± 21%  
  ASTL 152 U/L 19 15.063 3.18 2.11         
  Bili-D 28.1 umol/L 19 28.326 1.125 3.97 22.20 1.1 220.9 200.82     20%
Total Bilirubin Bili-T 16.5 umol/L 17 16.888 0.376 2.23 6.84 2.8 213.9 76.39 <5% ± 6.84 umol/L or ± 20% ± 20%  
  Bili-T 76.3 umol/L 19 75.421 5.257 6.97         
Calcium Ca 2.13 mmol/L 18 2.1233 0.0406 1.91 0.25 1.87 2.71 1.45 <10% ± 0.25 umol/L ± 12%  
  Ca 3.41 mmol/L 21 3.3681 0.0515 1.53         
Carbamazepine Carb 13.6 umol/L 9 11.6 1.773 15.28 0.13 0 1 UD <5% ± 25%   
  Carb 37.9 umol/L 10 330.46 3.45 10.31         
  Carb 60.9 umol/L 11 54.955 4.377 7.96         
Cholinesterase CHE 5400 U/L 16 5232.13 98.07 1.87 1216.80 2877 9291 3.23 <5%    20%
  CHE 1340 U/L 18 1313.78 26.47 2.01         
Cholesterol Chol 2.65 mmol/L 17 2.718 0.039 1.43 0.51 2.3 7.8 3.39 <10% ± 10% ± 10%  
Cholesterol Chol 5.27 mmol/L 18 5.117 0.051 1         
Creatinin Kinase CK 152 U/L 18 148.78 1.7 1.14 69.60 12 452 37.67 <5% ± 30% ± 30%  
  CK 499 U/L 18 494.56 6.29 1.27         
CK, iso-enzyme MB CKMB 5.13 ng/mL 9 5.43 0.063 1.16 1.45 0.9 21.2 23.56 ? ± 3 SD   
  CKMB 56.7 ng/mL 7 55.62 0.903 1.62         
Bicarbonate CO2 18.1 mmol/L 17 18.575 0.331 1.78 2.08 10.3 31.3 3.04 <10%    10%
  CO2 31.6 mmol/L 17 31.292 0.63 2.01         
Cortisol Cort 300 nmol/L 16 312.6 10.22 3.27 190.83 110.6 1416 12.80 <5% ± 25% ± 20%  
  Cort 723 nmol/L 13 733.3 12.22 1.67         
Creatinine Crea 89.1 umol/L 18 91.06 3.28 3.6 37.13 40 455 11.38 <5% ± 26.5 umol/L or ± 15%
  Crea 346 umol/L 18 345.61 6.98 2.02         
C-reactive Protein CRP 9.7 mg/L 15 9.653 0.223 2.31 16.26 0.3 216.5 721.67 <5%   ± 21%  
  CRP 53.2 mg/L 16 52.706 2.088 3.96         
Chloride Cl 84.8 mmol/L 28 83.709 2.623 3.13 5.15 87.9 118.1 1.34 >30% ± 5% ± 9%  
  Cl 118 mmol/L 28 114.967 2.066 1.8         
Digoxin Digo 1.382/1.48 nmol/L 10   0.048 1.4 0.41 0.192 3.09 16.09 <5% ± 25% ± 24% (<1 nmol/L: ± 0.24%)
  Digo 3.699 nmol/L 7 3.66 0.084 2.30         
Aethyl-ethanol ETOH 11.3 mmol/L 15 11.253 0.767 6.82 0.16 -0.4 1.7 -4.25 <5% ± 25%   
  ETOH 33.2 mmol/L 14 33.35 2.69 8.07         
Ferritin Ferri 12.5 ug/L 10 13.95 0.333 2.39 216.84 8.7 1726 198.39 <5%   ± 25%  
  Ferri 416 ug/L 10 412.4 13.21 3.2         
  Ferri 1330 ug/L 12 1283 61.71 4.81         
Folic acid Fol 6.765/7.08 nmol/L 11   0.639 9.35 5.48 9.44 45.4 4.81 <5%   ± 20%  
  Fol 16.91 nmol/L 11 17.381 0.604 3.48         
  Fol 34.731 nmol/L 12 35.185 2.26 6.42         
Free Tri-iodo thyronine FT3 6.1/6.33 pmol/L 17   0.157 2.52 0.84 1.63 6.78 4.16 <5%    20%
  FT3 25.6/26.0 pmol/L 15   0.6588 2.658         
Free Thyroxine FT4 14.3 pmol/L 16 15.82 0.54 3.41 3.84 11.27 27.13 2.41 <5% ± 3 SD ± 20%  
  FT4 51.6 pmol/L 16 55.69 2.42 4.35         
Gentamycine Gent 3.68 umol/L 9 3.189 0.586 18.38 1.33 0 10.6 UD <5% ± 25%   
  Gent 9.38 umol/L 10 9.02 0.944 10.47         
  Gent 15.8 umol/L 11 15.891 0.879 5.53         
-glutamyl transpeptidase GGT 46.4 U/L 17 45.65 0.61 1.34 195.30 9 1851 205.67 <5%   ± 21%  
  GGT 206 U/L 18 205.89 2.85 1.38         
Glucose Gluc 5.09 mmol/L 19 5.07 0.092 1.81 0.86 4.6 12.6 2.74 <10% ± 0.333 mmol/L or ± 10% ± 10%  
  Gluc 13.2 mmol/L 18 13.232 0.273 2.06         
Anti-Hepatitis A IgG HAV 18.5/18.7/20.5 IU/L 13   0.505 2.57 6.30 3 60 20.00 <5%    20%
  HAV 32.1/33.5/37.1 IU/L 15   0.778 2.39         
Human chorionic gonadotropin, Subunit HCG-beta 9.52 mIU/mL 17 9.278 0.21 2.26 2.90 0.1 23.1 231.00 <5% ± 3 SD ± 25%  
  HCG-beta 38.1 mIU/mL 16 36.654 1.018 2.78         
High-density lipoprotein HDL 1.2 mmol/L 17 1.15 0.0278 2.42 0.41 0.12 2.63 21.92 <5%   ± 30%  
  HDL 0.74 mmol/L 18 0.6461 0.0154 2.38         
Iron Iron 20 umol/L 18 20.131 0.304 1.51 2.89 1.9 27 14.21 <5% ± 20% ± 20%  
  Iron 29.5 umol/L 19 29.684 0.332 1.12         
Potassium K 3.41 mmol/L 27 3.3661 0.08 2.38 0.50 2.3 5.11 2.22 <10% ± 0.5 mmol/L ± 9%  
  K 6.26 mmol/L 28 6.1757 0.0916 1.48         
Lactate Dehydrogenase LDH 318 U/L 16 321.38 3.74 1.16 143.10 232 1199 5.17 <5% ± 20% ± 21%  
  LDH 497 U/L 17 501.82 4.52 0.9         
Low-density lipoprotein LDL 2.87 mmol/L 16 2.7144 0.0669 2.46 1.03 0.89 5.97 6.71 <5%    30%
  LDL 5.17 mmol/L 18 4.7817 0.0932 1.95         
Lipase Lipe 55.4 U/L 18 54.28 0.67 1.23 97.68 6 808 134.67 <5%   ± 24%  
  Lipe 89.9 U/L 18 88.33 1.88 2.13         
Magnesium Mg 0.892 mmol/L 17 0.868 0.0268 3.09 0.26 0.51 1.56 3.06 <5% ± 25% ± 20%  
  Mg 1.68 mmol/L 17 1.7065 0.0611 3.58         
Myoglobin Myo 85.2 ng/mL 11 80.107 2.025 2.53 28.68 21 170.2 8.10 <5%   ± 30%  
  Myo 1080 ng/mL 11 1003.3 43.704 4.36         
Sodium Na 121 mmol/L 27 119.79 2.92 2.44 12.69 129 153 1.19   ± 4 mmol/L ± 9%  
  Na 145 mmol/L 28 142.69 2.26 1.58         
Pheno-barbital Phno 39.9 umol/L 10 39.9 1.91 4.79 0.80 0 8 UD <5% ± 20%   
  Phno 105 umol/L 11 97.55 2.46 2.52         
  Phno 215 umol/L 10 198.2 5.2 2.62         
Phosphate Phos 1.29 mmol/L 17 1.3047 0.0194 1.49 0.20 0.62 2.06 3.32 <5%   ± 15%  
  Phos 2.01 mmol/L 18 2.0472 0.0321 1.57         
N-terminal Brain natriuretic peptide Pro-BNP 131 pg/mL 12 134 5.85 4.37 1837.05 5 24489 4897.80 <5%   ± 15%  
  Pro-BNP 4360 pg/mL 11 4944 135.5 2.74         
Parathyroid-hormone PTH 5.7982 pmol/L 7 5.47 0.165 3.01 5.13 2.12 40.61 19.16 <5%   ± 24%  
  PTH 20.246 pmol/L 5 19.94 0.278 1.4         
  PTH 86.39 pmol/L 6 87.06 1.23 1.42         
Anti-Rubella IgG RubG 3.57/3.96 IU/mL 13   0.186 4.99 50.02 0.17 500 2941.18   (1)   
  RubG 69.3 IU/mL 12 70.85 4.68 6.61         
Anti-Rubella IgM RubM 0.23 COI 13 0.224 0.008 3.57     UD   (1)   
  RubM 2 COI 13 1.816 0.128 7.05         
Salicylate Sali 0.29 mmol/L 9 0.2667 0.0324 12.15 -0.02 -0.22 0.05 -0.23 <5%    20%
  Sali 1.14 mmol/L 10 1.1335 0.0362 3.19         
  Sali 3.12 mmol/L 11 3.3218 0.0795 2.39         
Triiodo-thyronine T3 2.46 nmol/L 16 2.34 0.179 7.66 0.30 0.541 2.47 4.57 <5% ± 3 SD   20%
  T3 5.59 nmol/L 16 5.48 0.383 7         
Theophyllin Theo 30.1 umol/L 9 30.44 1.88 6.18 1.38 0 11 UD <5% ± 25%   
  Theo 82.7 umol/L 10 83.1 2.51 3.02         
  Theo 171 umol/L 11 166.64 5.26 3.16         
Troponin T TN-T 0.071 ug/L 13 0.073 0.003 4.11 0.31 0.01 2.54 254.00 <5%   ± 24%  
  TN-T 2.24 ug/L 11 2.213 0.037 1.67         
High-sensitivity TNT TNT-hs 0.0302 ug/L 11 0.032 0.001 3.13 0.26 0.003 2.19 730.00 <5%   ± 24%  
  TNT-hs 2.45 ug/L 11 2.488 0.054 2.17         
Tobramycin Tobr 1.79 ug/mL 9 1.8 0.071 3.94 0.03 0 0.2 UD <5% ± 25%   
  Tobr 4.01 ug/mL 10 3.94 0.07 1.78         
  Tobr 8.17 ug/mL 11 7.9 0.261 3.30         
Anti-Toxo-plasma IgG ToxoG 0.84 IU/mL 13 0.899 0.051 5.67 77.25 0.13 617.9 4753.08 <5%    20%
  ToxoG 48.1 IU/mL 13 50.549 2.93 5.80         
Anti-Toxo-plasma IgM ToxoM 0.18 COI 13 0.14 0.015 10.71   -1 -1 1.00     
  ToxoM 1.78 COI 13 1.86 0.057 3.06         
Total Protein TP 64.6 g/L 14 65.786 1.122 1.71 7.00 50 90 1.80 <10% ± 10% ± 15%  
  TP 102 g/L 15 105.23 1.05 1.00         
  TP 66.8 g/L 17 66.88 0.86 1.29         
  TP 50.1 g/L 19 50.11 0.74 1.48         
Triglycerides Trigl 1.22 mmol/L 17 1.2371 0.0126 1.02 0.74 0.67 5.21 7.78 <5% ± 25% ± 20%  
  Trigl 2.37 mmol/L 18 2.3711 0.0345 1.46         
Transferrin Trfe 33 umol/L 13 33.154 0.689 2.08 6.30 16 47 2.94 <5%    20%
  Trfe 48.9 umol/L 15 48.23 0.68 1.41         
  Trfe 25.1 umol/L 17 25.41 0.51 2.01         
Thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH 1.65 uIU/mL 16 1.57 0.019 1.21 0.62 0.05 6.14 122.80 <5% ± 3 SD ± 20%  
  TSH 9.09 uIU/mL 15 8.57 0.114 1.33         
Uric Acid UA 275 umol/L 17 276.12 2.71 0.98 75.00 93 907 9.75 <5% ± 17% ± 15%  
  UA 579 umol/L 18 575.11 10.53 1.83         
Urea Ureal 6.84 mmol/L 17 6.9 0.094 1.36 4.15 2 39.5 19.75 <5%   ± 20%  
  Ureal 24.4 mmol/L 18 23.967 0.387 1.61         
Valproate Valp 238 umol/L 9 233.44 29.75 12.74 3.88 0 31 UD <5% ± 25%   
  Valp 519 umol/L 10 549 47.71 8.69         
  Valp 811 umol/L 11 857.45 69.14 8.06         
Vanco-mycin Vanc 4.22 umol/L 10 4.59 0.468 10.2 0.18 0 1.8 UD <5%    20%
  Vanc 13.5 umol/L 10 15.52 0.914 5.89         
  Vanc 19.6 umol/L 12 22.083 0.997 4.51         
Vitamin B12 VitB12 177.858/194.8 pmol/L 11   9.546 5.24 123.35 109.5 1124 10.26 <5%   ± 20%  
  VitB12 392.616/408.9 pmol/L 11   11.8 2.99         
  VitB12 856.08 pmol/L 12 859.636 20.04 2.33         
Vitamin D VitD 55 nmol/L 6 48.36 6.93 14.33 14.71 17.78 129.3 7.27 <5%   ± 20%  
  VitD 83.75 nmol/L 4 72.95 6.92 9.49         
  VitD 115.5 nmol/L 6 106.5 10.31 9.68         
  1. (1) Target value ± 2 dilutions or immune or nonimmune or positive or negative, UD = undetermined
  2. All analyses were listed including their abbreviations used in the further tables. Their standard deviations (SD) and coefficient of variations (CV) of the controls (QC) are given. The target values of the QC material of different analytes, as well as the measurement units, the number of QC repetitions (n), the mean, SD and CV of the QC materials are displayed. The beta error was estimated [12] using the range ratio and the allowable biases as defined by the federal registry, the Qualab or the clinical estimate. The values used for the evaluations are displayed in bold.