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Table 1 Evolutive acute infections: results of DMEI, DPE, culture of valve and clinical features and other biological parameters

From: Direct microscopic examination of imprints in patients undergoing cardiac valve replacement

  patient DMEI Culture of the valve Blood cultures Blood cultures before ATB Intra-
     during the cardiac the cardiac surgery before the surgery cellular
     surgery   (time) bacteria
     (3)    serology
DPE+ 1 Neg S. epidermidis 4 S. epidermidis / No ND
  2 ++1 Neg 4 S aureus S. aureus Yes 4 weeks ND
  3 Neg S. epidermidis Neg S. epidermidis   
  4 +++1 Neg 3 S. epidermidis S. epidermidis Yes 4 weeks ND
  5 +++1 Neg   Streptococcus sp 2 Yes ND
  6 Neg Neg Neg / Yes Neg
  7 Neg Neg Neg Streptococcus sp 2 Yes 1 month ND
  8 +++1 Neg ND Neg Yes 2 days ND
  9 +1 Neg 3 S. agalactiae    
  10 Neg Neg     
  11 Neg Neg Neg S. pneumoniae Yes 1 month ND
  16 Neg Neg Neg    
  17 Neg Neg Neg S. bovis Yes > 1 month ND
  18 Neg Neg ND ND No ND
  19 Neg P. acnes ND H. influenzae Yes Neg
  20 Neg P. aeruginosa + S. hominis ND Streptococcus sp 2 Yes 2 months ND
  24 Neg Neg Neg S. bovis Yes 2 months ND
     Neg    
     Neg    
DPE- 12 Neg Neg ND Campylobacter sp Yes ND
  13 Neg Neg Neg S. agalactiae Yes 1 month ND
  14 Neg Neg Neg Enterococcus sp Yes 1 month ND
  15 Neg S. epidermidis Neg / No ND
  21 Neg Neg Neg Staphylococcus sp Yes ND
  22 Neg Neg Neg S. pneumoniae Yes 1 month ND
  23 Neg Neg ND E. faecium Yes 5 days ND
  1. DPE = direct pathological examination; DMEI = direct microscopic examination of imprints; 1 legend in bacteriological processing section, in all cases corresponding to Gram positif cocci; 2 Streptococcus sp was identified as belonging to streptococci viridans group; 3 the number before the species means the number of positive blood cultures; the ATB = antibiotic; Neg = negative; ND = not done; retrospective study impossible for patients 3, 9, 10, 16.