Thrombocytopenia in pregnant women with Plasmodium falciparum malaria in an area of unstable malaria transmission in eastern Sudan
© Adam et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. 2012
Received: 26 March 2012
Accepted: 28 July 2012
Published: 6 August 2012
Blood platelet levels are being evaluated as predictive and prognostic indicators of the severity of malaria infections in humans. However, there are few studies on platelets and Plasmodium falciparum malaria during pregnancy.
A case–control study was conducted at Gadarif Hospital in Eastern Sudan, an area characterized by unstable malaria transmission. The aim of the study was to investigate thrombocytopenia in pregnant women with P. falciparum malaria (cases) and healthy pregnant women (controls).
The median (interquartile) platelet counts were significantly lower in patients with malaria (N = 60) than in the controls (N = 60), 61, 000 (43,000–85,000) vs. 249,000 (204,000–300,000)/μL, respectively, p < 0.001. However, there was no significant difference in the platelet counts in patients with severe P. falciparum malaria (N = 12) compared with those patients with uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria (N = 48), 68, 000 (33,000-88,000)/μL vs. 61, 000 (45,000– 85,000)/μL, respectively, p = 0.8. While none of the control group had thrombocytopenia (platelet count <75, 000/μL), it was found that 6/12 (50%) and 27/48 (56.2%) (p <0.001) of the patients with severe malaria and uncomplicated malaria had thrombocytopenia, respectively. Pregnant women with P. falciparum malaria, compared with the pregnant healthy control group, were at higher risk (OR = 10.1, 95% CI = 4.1–25.18; p < 0.001) of thrombocytopenia. Two patients experienced bleeding, and there was one maternal death due to cerebral malaria where the patient’s platelet count was only 28,000/μL.
P. falciparum malaria is associated with thrombocytopenia in pregnant women in this setting. More research is needed.
It has been estimated that, each year, 30.3 million African women become pregnant in malaria endemic areas . Pregnant women are more susceptible to malaria infections than their non-pregnant counterparts . Malaria during pregnancy is associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes . In Sudan, pregnant women in the eastern and central regions are susceptible to malaria infection regardless of their age or parity [4, 5], and the disease is one of the leading causes of maternal and perinatal mortality [6–8].
Malaria, especially the severe Plasmodium falciparum form, can cause thrombocytopenia, where there is an abnormally low number of platelets, and activation of the coagulation cascade [9, 10]. Hence, platelet count is being evaluated as a predictor and prognostic feature of malaria infection . However, most research on thrombocytopenia and malaria is focused on non-pregnant populations including adults and children with symptomatic and asymptomatic P. falciparum infections [12–14]. There are few published data on platelets and P. falciparum infection during pregnancy . The current study was conducted at Gadarif Hospital in Eastern Sudan to investigate thrombocytopenia in pregnant women infected with P. falciparum malaria parasites. The area is characterized by unstable malaria transmission; P. falciparum is the sole malaria species in the area , and the disease is a huge problem among pregnant women, regardless of their age or parity .
A case–control study was conducted at the antenatal clinic in Gadarif Maternity Hospital in Eastern Sudan during the rainy/post rainy season of June-November 2011. Cases were pregnant women with P. falciparum malaria confirmed by blood film examination. Controls were afebrile healthy pregnant women attending for routine antenatal care without any illness, history, or symptoms (headache, dizziness, joint pain, anorexia, nausea, spontaneous bleeding) suggestive of malaria. In addition, the controls had parasite negative blood films. After signing an informed consent form, the obstetrics history was taken from cases and controls using pre-test questionnaires. Pregnant women with a hypertensive disorder of pregnancy (blood pressure of 140/90 mmHg or more, with or without proteinuria), or pregnant women using aspirin or heparin were not included in the case or control groups. The cases were examined thoroughly for signs of severe P. falciparum infection, and those with one or more criteria of severe malaria  were admitted to the hospital and managed accordingly, as we have recently described . Women who had not fulfilled the criteria for severe infection were considered to have uncomplicated P. falciparum malaria and were treated with the first-line anti-malarial treatment (artesunate-sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine) as out-patients according to the Sudanese National Malaria control policy .
Blood films were prepared and stained with Giemsa, and 100× oil immersion fields were examined. All the slides were double-checked blindly and only considered negative if no parasites were detected in 100 fields. Densities (parasite per μL of whole blood) were then calculated on the basis of the WBC count of the individual subjects. An average of 500 WBCs were counted for each subject before parasite densities were estimated. Thin blood films were used for parasite species identification.
Two mL of blood were collected from each woman in the case and control groups. The blood was collected into ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid anticoagulant through venipuncture and kept on a roller with constant mixing. The complete blood count was determined using a Sysmex automated hematology analyzer in the lab within one hour of collection. Sysmex accuracy was determined on a daily basis using manufacturer-provided samples with known cell counts.
Data were entered in computer using SPSS (version 16.0 for Microsoft Windows) and double-checked before analysis. Continuous variables were checked for normality, and normally distributed data were described by the mean (standard deviation) and non-normally distributed data by the median (interquartile range). Categorical data were compared using a Chi-square test or a Fisher's exact test, as appropriate. Student's t-test and ANOVA were used to compare the means between two or three of the groups, respectively. Mann–Whitney and Kruskal-Wallis H tests were used to analyze medians. A Pearson correlation test was performed between the platelets and parasite counts. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used, with thrombocytopenia (platelet count <75, 000/μL) as the dependent variable, while age, parity, gestational age, and temperature were the independent factors. Odds ratios and 95% confidence interval were calculated, and a P value < 0.05 was considered significant.
The study received ethical clearance from the Research Board at the Faculty of Medicine, University of Khartoum, Sudan.
Sixty pregnant women presented with P. falciparum malaria during the study period, and an equal number of healthy pregnant women were assigned to the control group. Out of the 60 P. falciparum-infected women, 12 were diagnosed as severe P. falciparum cases that exhibited various clinical manifestations, including, severe anemia (3), hypotension (9), jaundice (3), cerebral malaria (1), hyperparasitemia (5), bleeding (2) and more than one criteria (7).
Comparing mean(SD) of the basic clinical data between the patients with P. falciparum malaria and controls
Patients with severe malaria (N = 12)
Patients with uncomplicated malaria (N = 48)
Controls (N = 60)
Gestational age, weeks
Temperature, 0 C
Blood glucose, mg/dl
Serum bilirubin, mg/dl
Serum creatinine, mg/dl
Comparison of n (%) of women with platelet concentration by categories x 1,000/μL between the cases and controls
Patients with severe malaria (N = 12)
Patients with uncomplicated malaria (N = 48)
Controls (N = 60)
Risk factors for thrombocytopenia using univariate and multivariate analyses
95 % CI
95 % CI
To the best of our knowledge, this is the first published data on thrombocytopenia in pregnant women infected with P. falciparum malaria in Africa. The main findings of the current study were that the platelet counts in pregnant women with P. falciparum malaria were significantly lower than in the controls, and there was no difference in the platelet counts in women with severe P. falciparum malaria vs. in the women with uncomplicated malaria. One noteworthy finding was that pregnant women with malaria had a 10 times higher risk of thrombocytopenia than did the controls. In women with P. falciparum malaria infections, there was no significant correlation between parasite and platelet counts. Recently, Tan et al. observed that pregnant women living at the Thai-Burmese border were more susceptible to thrombocytopenia (platelet counts <150,000/μL) than their non-pregnant counterparts; the median platelet counts 134,000 (11,000–690,000) in this study were significantly lower in pregnant women with P. falciparum malaria and Plasmodium vivax malaria, with the first malaria episode increasing the risk of thrombocytopenia . Interestingly, various definitions of platelet density (per μL) have been used to define thrombocytopenia in pregnant women, i.e. 75,000/μL, 115,000/μL and 150,000/μL, and of course, pregnancy itself can lead to thrombocytopenia [21–24]
In the current study, no correlation was found between the blood-stage parasite numbers and the platelet counts. This is in accordance with a previous observation, where it was shown that the pattern of thrombocytopenia and parasitemia did not have a linear relationship among malaria-infected Nigerian children . However, among Papuan adults, platelet counts were negatively correlated with the level P. falciparum parasitemia . Thrombocytopenia in malaria probably occurs through peripheral destruction, sequestration or excessive removal of the platelets by the spleen, as well as platelet consumption by the process of disseminated intravascular coagulation [25–28]. Platelets have been reported to enhance clumping of P. falciparum-infected erythrocytes, and this process might lead to pseudo thrombocytopenia . In endemic areas, malaria patients have high levels of specific antibodies (IgG) which bind to platelet-bound malaria antigens .
In the current study, two patients presented with nasal bleeding and bleeding of the gums, and one of those who presented with cerebral malaria died. There were no episodes of bleeding or maternal death in our recent study on severe malaria among pregnant women in eastern Sudan . Thrombocytopenia and spontaneous bleeding among pregnant women might cause life threatening antepartum or postpartum hemorrhages. Recent observations document that women with placental malaria are at higher risk of postpartum hemorrhage [31, 32]. The question of malaria-associated hemorrhage in pregnancy might be addressed by longitudinal studies aimed at investigating the role played by platelets in peripheral and placental malaria.
In the current study, no significant difference was found in the platelet counts when patients with severe malaria were compared with those who had uncomplicated disease. This might be related to the small sample size in this study because only 12 patients presented with severe P. falciparum malaria. Nonetheless, Saravu et al. recently found that non-pregnant adult patients with severe P. falciparum malaria had a statistically significant lower platelet count than patients with uncomplicated malaria . One of the limitations of the current study was the lack of the patients` outcomes in term of the treatment and the pregnancy outcomes.
P. falciparum malaria is associated with thrombocytopenia in pregnant women in eastern Sudan. More research is needed.
We are very grateful to the women who participated in this study and to all the staff at Gadarif hospital. This work was funded by the National Fund for Promotion of Medical Service, Khartoum, Sudan.
- Dellicour S, Tatem AJ, Guerra CA, Snow RW, ter Kuile FO: Quantifying the number of pregnancies at risk of malaria in 2007: a demographic study. PLoS Med. 2010, 7: e1000221-10.1371/journal.pmed.1000221.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Elghazali G, Adam I, Hamad A, El-Bashir MI: Plasmodium falciparum infection during pregnancy in an unstable transmission area in eastern Sudan. East Mediterr Health J. 2003, 9: 570-580.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Brabin BJ: An analysis of malaria in pregnancy in Africa. Bull World Health Organ. 1983, 61: 1005-16.PubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Adam I, Babiker S, Mohmmed AA, Salih MM, Prins MH, Zaki ZM: ABO blood group system and placental malaria in an area of unstable malaria transmission in eastern Sudan. Malar J. 2007, 6: 110-10.1186/1475-2875-6-110.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Adam I, Khamis AH, Elbashir MI: Prevalence and risk factors for Plasmodium falciparum malaria in pregnant women of eastern Sudan. Malar J. 2005, 4: 18-10.1186/1475-2875-4-18.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Bader E, Alhaj AM, Hussan AA, Adam I: Malaria and stillbirth in Omdurman Maternity Hospital, Sudan. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2010, 109: 144-6. 10.1016/j.ijgo.2009.11.022.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Elhassan EM, Mirghani OA, Adam I: High maternal mortality and stillbirth in the Wad Medani Hospital, Central Sudan, 2003–2007. Trop Doct. 2009, 39: 238-9. 10.1258/td.2009.090005.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Haggaz AA, Radi EA, Adam I: High maternal mortality in Darfur, Sudan. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007, 98: 252-3. 10.1016/j.ijgo.2007.04.003.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Erhart LM, Yingyuen K, Chuanak N, Buathong N, Laoboonchai A, Miller RS, Meshnick SR, Gasser RA, Wongsrichanalai C: Hematologic and clinical indices of malaria in a semi-immune population of western Thailand. AmJTrop Med Hyg. 2004, 70: 8-14.Google Scholar
- Abdalla S, Pasvol G: Platelets and blood coagulation in human malaria. The Haemotology of Malaria. Edited by: Newton PN, Essien E, White NJ. 2004, London: Imperial College Press, 249-276.Google Scholar
- Imbert P, Rogier C, Gerardin P: Letter to the editor. AmJTrop Med Hyg. 2003, 68: 380-381.Google Scholar
- Taylor WR, Widjaja H, Basri H, Ohrt C, Taufik T, Tjitra E, Baso S, Fryauff D, Hoffman SL, Richie TL: Changes in the total leukocyte and platelet counts in Papuan and non Papuan adults from northeast Papua infected with acute Plasmodium vivax or uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria. Malar J. 2008, 7: 259-10.1186/1475-2875-7-259.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Maina RN, Walsh D, Gaddy C, Hongo G, Waitumbi J, Otieno L, Jones D, Ogutu BR: Impact of Plasmodium falciparum infection on haematological parameters in children living in Western Kenya. Malar J. 2010, 3 (9): S4-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Jeremiah ZA, Uko EK: Depression of platelet counts in apparently healthy children with asymptomatic malaria infection in a Nigerian metropolitan city. Platelets. 2007, 18: 469-71. 10.1080/09537100701194871.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tan SO, McGready R, Zwang J, Pimanpanarak M, Sriprawat K, Thwai KL, Moo Y, Ashley EA, Edwards B, Singhasivanon P, White NJ, Nosten F: Thrombocytopaenia in pregnant women with malaria on the Thai-Burmese border. Malar J. 2008, 7: 209-10.1186/1475-2875-7-209.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Malik EM, Atta HY, Weis M, Lang A, Puta C, Lettenmaier C: Sudan Roll Back Malaria Consultative Mission: Essential Actions to Support the Attainment of the Abuja Targets. Sudan RBM Country Consultative Mission Final Report. 2004, Geneva: Roll Back Malaria PartnershipGoogle Scholar
- Adam I, Adamt GK, Mohmmed AA, Salih MM, Ibrahuim SA, Ryan CA: Placental malaria and lack of prenatal care in an area of unstable malaria transmission in eastern Sudan. J Parasitol. 2009, 95: 751-2. 10.1645/GE-1912.1.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- World Health Organization: Division of control of tropical diseases: Severe falciparum malaria. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2000, 94: SI/1-SI/90.View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Ali AA, Elhassan EM, Magzoub MM, Elbashir MI, Adam I: Hypoglycaemia and severe Plasmodium falciparum malaria among pregnant Sudanese women in an area characterized by unstable malaria transmission. Parasit Vectors. 2011, 23 (4): 88-View ArticleGoogle Scholar
- Adam I, Ali DM, Abdalla MA: Artesunate plus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine in the treatment of uncomplicated Plasmodium falciparum malaria during pregnancy in eastern Sudan. Trans R Soc Trop Med Hyg. 2006, 100: 632-5. 10.1016/j.trstmh.2005.09.019.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boehlen F: Thrombocytopenia during pregnancy. Importance, diagnosis and management. Hämostaseologie. 2006, 26: 72-74.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Matthews JH, Benjamin S, Gill DS, Smith NA: Pregnancy-associated thrombocytopenia: definition, incidence and natural history. Acta Haematol. 1990, 84: 24-29. 10.1159/000205022.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- McCrae KR: Thrombocytopenia in pregnancy: differential diagnosis, pathogenesis, and management. Blood Rev. 2003, 17: 7-14. 10.1016/S0268-960X(02)00056-5.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Boehlen F, Hohlfeld P, Extermann P, Perneger TV, de Moerloose P: Platelet count at term pregnancy: a reappraisal of the threshold. Obstet Gynecol. 2000, 95: 29-33. 10.1016/S0029-7844(99)00537-2.PubMedGoogle Scholar
- Beale PJ, Cormack JD, Oldrey TB: Thrombocytopenia in malaria with immunoglobulin (IgM) changes. BMJ. 1972, 1 (5796): 345-349. 10.1136/bmj.1.5796.345.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Ladhani S, Lowe B, Cole AO, Kowuondo K, Newton CR: Changes in white blood cells and platelets in children with falciparum malaria: relationship to disease outcome. Br J Haematol. 2002, 119: 839-847. 10.1046/j.1365-2141.2002.03904.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Skudowitz RB, Katz J, Lurie A, Levin J, Metz J: Mechanisms of thrombocytopenia in malignant tertian malaria. BMJ. 1973, 2: 515-518. 10.1136/bmj.2.5865.515.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Essien EM: The circulating platelet in acute malaria infection. Br J Haematol. 1989, 72: 589-590. 10.1111/j.1365-2141.1989.tb04329.x.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Moulin F, Lesage F, Legros AH, Maroga C, Moussavou A, Guyon P, Marc E, Gendrel D: Thrombocytopenia and Plasmodium falciparum malaria in children with different exposures. Arch Dis Child. 2003, 88: 540-541. 10.1136/adc.88.6.540.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Pain A, Ferguson DJ, Kai O, Urban BC, Lowe B, Marsh K, Roberts DJ: Platelet-mediated clumping of Plasmodium falciparum-infected erythrocytes is a common adhesive phenotype and is associated with severe malaria. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001, 98: 1805-1810. 10.1073/pnas.98.4.1805.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- Uddenfeldt Wort U, Hastings I, Bergstrom S, Massawe S, Lipingu C, Brabin BJ: Increased postpartum blood loss in pregnancies associated with placental malaria. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2007, 96: 171-175. 10.1016/j.ijgo.2006.11.023.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Piper C, Brabin BJ, Alpers MP: Higher risk of post-partum hemorrhage in malarious than in non-malarious areas of Papua New Guinea. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2001, 72: 77-78. 10.1016/S0020-7292(00)00323-4.View ArticlePubMedGoogle Scholar
- Saravu K, Docherla M, Vasudev A, Shastry BA: Thrombocytopenia in vivax and falciparum malaria: an observational study of 131 patients in Karnataka, India. Ann Trop Med Parasitol. 2011, 105: 593-598. 10.1179/2047773211Y.0000000013.View ArticlePubMedPubMed CentralGoogle Scholar
- The pre-publication history for this paper can be accessed here:http://www.biomedcentral.com/1472-6890/12/10/prepub
This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.